Prilims Mains and optional World Geography Syllabus for UPSC

World Geography Syllabus for UPSC section of the UPSC (Union Public Service Commission) examination is as follows:

World Geography

Salient features of the physical geography of the World Geography:

Earth’s structure and composition

World Geography Syllabus for UPSC – the UPSC (Union Public Service Commission) examination does not have a specific syllabus section solely dedicated to the Earth’s structure and composition under the subject of Geography.

However, the general World Geography Syllabus for UPSC includes topics that indirectly cover aspects of the Earth’s structure and composition. Here are some relevant topics that may be included:

Physical Geography:World Geography Syllabus

  • Earth’s interior structure: Core, mantle, and crust
  • Plate tectonics and continental drift
  • Earthquakes and seismic activity
  • Volcanoes and volcanic activity
  • Weathering, erosion, and deposition processes


  • Landforms and their formation processes (e.g., mountains, plains, plateaus)
  • Endogenic and exogenic forces shaping the Earth’s surface
  • Structural landforms (e.g., fold mountains, rift valleys)
  • Coastal landforms and processes

Climatology:World Geography Syllabus

  • Atmospheric composition and layers
  • Weather and climate systems
  • Global climate patterns and controls
  • Climate change and its impacts on the Earth’s systems

Environmental Geography:

  • Natural hazards and disasters (e.g., earthquakes, volcanic eruptions)
  • Impact of natural processes on human settlements
  • Human-induced changes to the Earth’s physical environment
  1. Earth’s landforms and their formation
  2. Plate tectonics and continental drift
  3. Earthquakes, volcanoes, and their significance
  4. Weathering, erosion, and deposition
World Geography syllabus

Distribution of key natural resources across the world:World Geography Syllabus

  • Minerals and their distribution
  • Energy resources (fossil fuels, nuclear energy, renewable energy)
  • Water resources and their management
  • Forest resources and their conservation
  • Wildlife and biodiversity hotspots

Major industrial regions and their characteristics:

  • Industrial regions in North America, Europe, Asia, and Africa
  • Factors influencing the location of industries
  • Industrial clusters and their importance
  • Role of transportation and communication in industrial development

Important physical and human phenomena:

  • Climatic zones and their characteristics
  • Atmospheric circulation and weather systems
  • Ocean currents and their influence on climate
  • Population distribution and migration patterns
  • Urbanization and its impact on society

Geopolitical issues and regional groupings:

  • Global political and economic organizations (UN, WTO, IMF, World Bank)
  • Regional groupings (EU, ASEAN, NAFTA, etc.)
  • Major conflicts and geopolitical tensions
  • International boundaries and disputes
  • Impact of globalization on world economies

Environmental concerns and sustainable development: – World Geography Syllabus

  • Climate change and its impacts
  • Ozone depletion and the Montreal Protocol
  • Deforestation and desertification
  • Environmental conservation and protection measures
  • Sustainable development goals (SDGs)

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